Theodorakis - Chronology (XVI)

For the dignity of Greece 2008 - 2013

Guy Wagner

Structure and Illustrations


19.02. The Minister of Foreign Affairs of San Marino, Fiorenzo Stolfi, presents Theodorakis medal of honor of his country.

Tatiana Papageorgiou performing

10.05. Creation of the Piano Concerto No. 2, ΑSΤ 331, at Irodion Theatre, with the ERT National Symphony Orchestra directed by Loukas Karytinos and the soloist Tatiana Papageorgiou.

17.06. Theodorakis gets an award for National Culture of Cuba.

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "otto sauter"Otto Sauter

09.10. The creation of the Rhapsody for Trumpet and Orchestra, ΑSΤ 561, in an arrangement by Robert Gulya, is held in Cologne with Otto Sauter on trumpet and Philharmonic Volkswagen Orchestra conducted by István Dénes.

Ähnliches FotoTo Yelasto Pedi

06.12. During a protest, a 15 year old student, Alexandros Grigoropoulos, was shot by a police officer. This assassination triggered a wave of protests throughout Greece.

12.03. In the presence of the President of the Hellenic Republic, Mr. Karolos Papoulias, and Prime Minister Costas Karamanlis, Athens opens the largest exhibition ever dedicated to Theodorakis. Its title: Mikis Theodorakis - composer - politician - thinker.

March   Attacks of lawless groups are multiplying, particularly against banks and the Stock Exchange.

09.05. Violent clashes between 300 Nazis of Chryssi Avghi claiming to free Athens and Greece from "illegal immigrant hordes" and roughly 500 migrants happen on the Omonia Square.

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "george papandreou"The last of three Papandreous

04.10. George Papandreou and PASOK win early parliamentary elections.

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "Schäuble"A notorious Greek-Hater

09.10. The new German Finance Minister Wolfgang Schäuble expresses his will to not participate in any case to the payment of the Greek debt. Germany starts a disgusting campaign against "lazy" Greeks.

05.11. The first budget estimations foresee a deficit of 12.7% of GDP, twice as much as what had been announced.

Theodorakis bitterly finds that "Mr. Papandreou had already since summer 2009 begun a conspiracy against the Greek people, when he secretly met with Strauss-Kahn to lead Greece under the hegemony of the IMF."

21.12. Theodorakis makes tribute to Christos Lambrakis, who died of a heart attack. He says: "I can not think of Greece without the presence of Christos Lambrakis. I lived with him, beside him, disagreed, agreed with him, was angry, happy, unhappy, happy, but always together with him. "

End of the year the public debt amounted to 113.40% of GDP.


The year of acute crisis.

02.02. The government extends the freeze on public wages to those earning less than 2,000 euros per month. The answer is a general strike.

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "karolos papoulias"President Papoulias

03.02. Greek President Karolos Papoulias is re-elected for a second term.

10.02. National strikes are held to protest against the recent salary cuts and other economic measures taken by the government to solve the financial crisis.

11.02. In order to save the Greek economy, the 27 heads of state and government of EU countries gather for an informal summit in Brussels. Angela Merkel and Nicolas Sarkozy stress the need for a rigorous implementation of the stability program for the country.

17.02. Theodorakis shouts: "It is a shame!" He adds:"We who are voting, follow the situation of evil, because we have been deceived, ALL ALL, because we have been abused ALL ALL, and we have lost ourselves and our country . "

13.03. Schäuble says to Financial Times that "countries which do not respect the budgetary discipline will face expulsion from the euro zone as a last resort" ... He obviously thinks on Greece.

11.04. The ministers of Finance of the Eurogroup agree during a teleconference on a plan for loans to Greece. It involves bilateral loans from Member States of the euro area at a rate of about 5% for a period of three years, and this for a total amount of 30 billion euros in 2010.

02.05. The EU and the IMF agree to provide Greece a financial assistance plan (Memorandum) in the form of about 120 billion loans to end the financial crisis. The Memorandum was signed by Minister Michalis Chrisochoïdis (PASOK) ... who later admitted on television that he had not even read it.

05.05. New general strike in Greece.

06.05. With 172 votes against 121, the Greek Parliament accepts the Memorandum.

10.05. "Do not live like slaves" is a new slogan which can be read all over Greece. This is also the title given by director Yannis Youlountas to his film in 2013.

29.06. Thousands of workers protest by another general strike against the austerity measures of the government.

08.07. Another general strike was directed against the pension cuts and against increasing the age of retirement.

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "Erdogan Theodorakis"Two PM visit Theodorakis

28.07. Turkish Prime Minister Recep Erdogan, on a state visit to Greece, wants to meet with Theodorakis with Greek Prime Minister Papandreou in the house of the composer.

29.07. Greece and the world celebrate the 85th anniversary of Theorodakis, but he can not be happy: He cares too much for his country.

01.08. Another strike, this time by truck drivers and ferry owners, against the government's recruitment policy.

07.09. Swearing in the reshuffled government.

11.09. During the protests against the visit of Prime Minister Papandreou in Thessaloniki, police uses tear gas.

07.10. 24-hour general strike in Greece to protest against cuts in wages and pensions as part of the austerity measures of the government.

11.10. Epaminondas Korkoneas, a Greek police officer of the special unit, is sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder of young Alexandros Grigoropoulos.

November A series of bombings and explosives in packages have as a result that mail is not delivered for days.

07.11. The municipal and prefectural elections show ND and PASOK losing.

01.12. At the Cacoyannis Foundation, Mikis Theodorakis creates SPITHA (The Spark). He declares that his sole motivation is to help to create a movement and to promote independent ideas far away from the status quo of the political parties. He saiys, that he wants to support those who "feel the need to respond to the current impasse" and to contribute to help Greece out of the deep crisis in which "the world crisis of capitalism depending on international political and financial centers" has led his country.

15.12. Another general strike has led cuts in wages and pensions. There are numerous incidents and clashes between protesters and the police in Athens.

The announced deficit state budget for 2010 amounts to 10.5% of GDP, a figure that is well above the government's expectations.

In late 2010, gross public debt is 144.00% of GDP.


09.05. EU officials have admit that Greece would need a second reflation package.

11.05. During a recent general strike new violent incidents take place in the center of Athens. A protester is led in critical condition in hospital. Police uses tear gas to disperse the demonstrators.

"I am a communist as well!"

31.05. A demonstration in support of the occupants of Syntagma Square was held at the University of Athens, with the participation of Mikis Theodorakis. He denounces the sale of the assets of the state and he sharply critics Greek politician caste. "This is an enormous national tragedy, and I accuse the two main parties to be responsible for putting Greece on the brink of the abyss."

03.06. Prime Minister Papandreou presents a plan for new measures of privatization and austerity. The unions announce a general strike for June 15.

15.06. Massive riots occur. The police prevents the protesters from entering the Parliament building. For this it uses water pumps and tear gas, and proceeds to a dozen arrests.

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "Evangelos Venizelos"E. Venizelos

16.-17.06. Evangelos Venizelos is the new Minister of Finance. The new government is approved by the Parliament on 22.

22.07. At the Festival of the Aegean Sea, Renato Zanella creates an impressive choreography Medea's Choice, taking as a basis musical excerpts from the opera of Theodorakis. Maria Kousoun dances in the title role. This achievement is filmed by Αsteris Koutoulas and forms the basis of a unique film in 2013: Recycling Medea.

31.10. Papandreou announces a referendum on the new aid plan for October 27.

01.11. Mario Draghi is elected to as president of the European Central Bank (ECB), succeeding to Jean-Claude Trichet .

01.11. Theodorakis protests against the maneuver of Papandreou and his government: "Did they ask us when they went to the IMF? Or when they signed the first loan agreement? Now that we are bound hand and foot, he proposes a referendum."

02.11. Papandreou meets French President Nicolas Sarkozy and German Chancellor Angela Merkel in Cannes. In a joint statement, the last two stipulate that the sixth tranche of the loan for Greece would be released only if the country applies the decisions taken at the Summit 27.10.

03.11. Tumultuous scenes take place in Parliament and a governmental crisis seems inevitable.

03.11. Theodorakis protests again and asks: "Has George Papandreou  completely lost his mind to keep his post as prime minister? He behaves like a bull in a china shop, causing an international crisis with his own country as the the main victim".

04.11. The events become grotesque when Papandreou, under pressure from the  famours "Troika" (UE, ECB, FMI), cancels the referendum and announces his resignation in case he gets a vote of confidence. This is the case with an extremely narrow majority of 153 affirmative against 145 negative votes.

09.11. Papandreou presents his resignation to the President of the Republic.

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "Loukas Papademos"L. Papademos

11.11. Loukas Papademos, former vice president of the ECB, is sworn in as new Prime Minister.

16.11. Papademos wins a vote of confidence in Parliament and paves the way for the formation of a government of "national unity" (ND, PASOK, LAOS) to restore financial stability in Greece.

The sovereign debt of Greece in 2011 is 157.7% of GDP.


20.01. A project of the German Federal Government is revealed. It proposes to take control of the economy in Greece by a "Budget Commissioner". The indignation in Greece is great.

01.02. Mikis Theodorakis, Manolis Glezos and many personalities announce the transformation of SPITHA into a broader and better organized resistance front called: EL.LA.DA, short for ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΛΑΪΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΚΗ ΑΠΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΩΣΗ (Popular Democratic Greek Movement): "We are not a party, says Mikis Theodorakis,  we only want to unite somehow all the organizations fighting against the Troika and the treacherous politicians, avoiding partisan divisions."

10.02. Mikis Theodorakis joins the call for a large demonstration outside the Parliament. "One must not allow that the 'death penalty for the fatherland'" he says.

Theodorakis with gas mask

12.02. While the Greek Parliament votes on the adoption of austerity measures in exchange for the granting of an additional loan by the Eurozone,  there is outside the House of Parliament a huge demonstration. The special police MAT uses tear gas against demonstrators, so against Manolis Glezos and also against Mikis Theodorakis who declares: "Our country is sinking into the darkness of the Middle Ages." Up to 60 police officers are wounded in the clashes, and at least 10 buildings burn, including the historical cinema "Attic".

In an open Letter to the world, the composer writes the same day: "If you keep in mind that for us the German occupation has cost a million deaths and the total destruction of our country, how can we, the Greeks, tolerate Merkel's threats and the Germans threat to impose us a new Gauleiter? ... This time with a tie ... "

13.02. Schäuble maintains that "Greece's promises are not enough for us."

16.02. The Greek government approves additional austerity measures asked by EU and IMF.

08.03. Greece reaches an agreement with private creditors on a debt restructuring.

05.04. Clashes happen between police and protesters in Athens, a few hours after the suicide in public of a retiree of 77 years outside of Parliament.

11.04. Loukas Papademos resigns and announces early parliamentary elections for May 6.

04.05. On the eve of the new elections Theodorakis declares, referring in particular to statements of Schäuble: "To this crime of foreign and Greek leaders, the only answer is: Independence. Resistance. Disobedience."

06.05. In the new parliamentary elections, ND and PASOK suffer heavy losses: Together both parties have no absolute majority. All attempts to form a stable government fail. The President of the State Council Panagiotis Pikrammenos is appointed interim PM.

Image associéeA. Samaras

17.06. After new parliamentary elections, Antonis Samaras forms a government with representatives of ND, PASOK and DIMAR.

06.-11.07. Two days after a new general strike held against the government, it adopts the next Memorandum by a narrow majority.

26.09. New general strike against the new austerity measures underway.

09.10. 25,000 protest against the visit of Angela Merkel in Athens.

18.10. New protest strike with tens of thousands of participants.

27.11. The countries in the eurozone will pay loans of 43.7 billion euros to Greece
after December 13 to try to reduce the country's debt.

End of 2012  Public debt is 156.90% of GDP: the result is slightly "better" than before, but at what price ...


January   The IMF admits a "difficult and probably bad estimation of the fiscal multiplier."

30.01. Creation of Mikis' Rhapsody for string orchestra (and mezzo-soprano or baritone ad libitum), ΑSΤ 341, on poems by Dionysis Karatzas, with baritone Dimitris Tiliakos and National Symphony Orchestra of ERT under the direction of Miltos Logiadis.

11.01. Mikis Theodorakis has become great-grandfather.

12.02. More than 9,000 people of all ages participate in a rally in Ierapetra against the continued degradation of their Hospital.

24.03. Police prevents a rally by the SPITHA movement created by composer Mikis Theodorakis from approaching the location of the student parade for the anniversary of Greek Revolution Day (March 25) in central Athens, arresting one person.

30.05. Theodorakis is elected honorary member of the Academy of Athens.

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "christine lagarde"Madame Lagarde

Christine Lagarde, the Managing Director of IMF since July 2011, makes her "mea culpa", admitting that the first Greek bailout had ended by "significant failures" mainly because of disagreements with the European partners in the Troika.

05.06. A member of the Nazi party Golden Dawn
questions the truth of the Shoah in Parliament.

06.06. In an open letter, which he published under the title: We must respond now, while there is still time, Theodorakis calls "shameful" the fact that an MP,
during a speech to the Parliament, could show the possibility of a doubt concerning the existence of the Nazi's Holocaust against the Jews, "the greatest crime ever perpetrated in History". He added that this "blemishs the image of our country."

13.06. General strike by the trade unions against the arbitrary closure of ERT by Samaras two days earlier. Theodorakis, who had been leading its choirs and orchestras for two years (1993-4), expressed his solidarity with the musicians: "I think the cup of wrath is now full and all Greeks, as a single man, say a resounding NO to this merciless attack. "

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "recycling medea not an opera ballet film"One of the posters for "Recycling Medea"

20.06. World Première of the Film Recycling Medea at Badminton Theatre in Athens. The filmmaker Asteris Koutoulas, thanks to a clever blend, combines
excerpts of the ballet Medea's Choice  with the scenes of riots (Theodorakis with gas mask) in Athens and the embodied "Innocence" for a terrible message: Greece, as desperate as Medea has been, murders its children, the distraught young generation.

21.09. Theodorakis retires from active politics. He recalls the foundations of SPITHA: A. We are against the system. - B. We are radicals. - C. We only believe in informed, organized and determined people. - D. Our ultimate goal is national independence. But for Mikis, SPITHA did not become the expected mass movement.

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "Theodorakis akademie athen"A warm welcome to Mikis

03.12. Theodorakis is solemnly admitted to the Academy of Athens. In his speech, which he calls The only way, he is in favour of a Greece becoming a neutral "Switzerland" of peace and culture.

24.-30.12. Theodorakis has to stay in the Medical Center of Athens, because he shows all symptoms of pneumonia.

End of 2013 debt is heigher than 176% of GDP.